House-Senate confrontation set over biogenerics — Late last month, a key group of senators reached agreement on legislative provisions that would authorize copycat versions of biotech drugs, which are typically complex proteins manufactured by genetically engineered cells (see details here and here). These provisions would finally put biotech drugs — which don’t face cut-rate competition once their key patents expire — on a par with traditional pharmaceuticals, and have been a long time in coming. They’re not perfect, but they’re about as good a compromise as we’re likely to see any time soon..
The catch is that biogenerics supporters want to attach this langauge to a reauthorization of the FDA’s user-fees act, the awkwardly named PDUFA, which has to pass by September to keep the FDA operating smoothly. The Senate’s version passed in May, whereas the House just approved its version yesterday — but didn’t include a biogenerics pathway. The senators want to add it to their version of the bill, which has to be reconciled with the House version in a conference committee. But key House members, including Energy and Commerce Chairman John Dingell, a Michigan Democrat, appear likely to object, since they haven’t had a chance to weigh in on the provision.
The upshot: Turf wars between the houses of Congress may cost us our best shot at biogenerics legislation in some time. Tying the measure to PDUFA would be one of the best ways to sidestep legislative roadblocks that opponents and their biotech/pharma backers are likely to throw up — but the window is closing rapidly. The WSJ has more here.
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Digital medical records are good for your health — or are they? One of the strongest arguements for digitizing medical records is that they’ll help prevent medical errors and improve medical care. A recent review of other studies in the journal Health Services Research gave digitized records a strong vote of confidence when it found that hospitals that switched to electronic drug-ordering systems saw a 66 percent drop in medication errors. (Such mistakes apparently kill 500,000 U.S. hospital patients every year.) Similarly, a report from the Pharmaceutical Care Management Association predicts that electronic prescribing could save Medicare as much as $29 billion over the next two years while preventing two million medication errors.
As with any technology, however, electronic records are no panacea. Another study of walk-in doctor visits found no improvement in treatment quality among practices that used electronic medical records versus those that still relied on paper. The study’s conclusion: Implementing digitized records is just the first step — doctors and medical groups still need to do a lot of work to get the most out of them.
On a related note, a Senate committee recently passed legislation that would offer subsidies to convince doctors to install digital health-record systems.
RNAi is hot, hot, HOT — Once again, it’s boom times for a new drug technology, and this time the spotlight is on RNA interference — a fascinating but largely unproven method for turning off individual genes by using a short stretch of double-stranded RNA to activate ancient gene-silencing machinery inside cells.
The party really got started last year, when Merck paid $1.1 billion to acquire Sirna Therapeutics, a fledgling RNAi company that had barely managed to move a single drug into an early-stage trial. Now things have heated up even further. Last Friday, AstraZeneca struck a $400 million deal with Silence Therapeutics. Then on Tuesday, Roche stepped up to forge a $1 billion deal with Alnylam, an early pioneer in the area.
What’s worth remembering is that no matter how promising a technology like RNAi seems, putting it to practical use almost always takes far longer and costs more than people expect in the early stages. Just take a look at the roll call of other drug technologies that have undergone similar cycles of hype and disappointment — gene therapy, antisense, therapeutic vaccines. All remain promising — but none of them worked the first time out of the gate. Even monoclonal antibodies took close to two decades before anyone could make a reasonable drug with them. Maybe RNAi will be different — but I wouldn’t bet my wallet on it.
Have cancer vaccines gotten a raw deal? A paper in Clinical Cancer Research (described here) argues that regulators and companies may be too quick to dismiss clinical-trial results if they focus on tumor shrinkage rather than long-term outcomes like survival. That may well be true, as tumor shrinkage is a notoriously bad measure of whether drugs work or not, although it’s also worth noting that a reconsideration still wouldn’t have helped Dendreon’s Provenge vaccine, since its survival data was so statistically equivocal. (Separately, the SEC has now opened an informal inquiry into Dendreon’s public disclosures about Provenge this year.)
DNA transplant “transforms” microbial species — J. Craig Venter’s group at his eponymous institute takes the honors, described here in the WaPo. Next up: Transferring an entirely synthetic genome into a DNA-less microbe to create “artificial life,” something Venter says may happen within months. Similarly, here’s the NYT on the new science of “synthetic biology.” Brace yourselves.
Does “pay for performance” improve medical care? A few weeks ago, the WSJ said no, citing a Medicare experiment. Today, the NYT says yes, citing… a Medicare experiment! I’ll have more to say once my head stops hurting.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis may harm fertility — Or so say the authors of a Dutch study described by the WSJ here. Several researchers seem to think the results need to be verified elsewhere before abandoning the procedure, in which a single cell is extracted from an IVF embryo for genetic analysis.
Stem cells tailor their own environments — At least according to Canadian researchers, who explored the specifics of how embryonic stem cells communicate with the cells around them. The Globe and Mail has the story.
Simple enzyme short-circuits bacterial drug resistance — Basically, it prevents bacteria from swapping the genes that confer resistance to antibiotics.
High-throughput output —
- Vermont sets up a Web site comparing pharmacy drug prices (Kaiser)
- Researchers discover molecule that may promote food allergies (BBC)
- Breast-cancer risk genes may not influence survival (WSJ)
- Congressional Democrats want to know who muzzled the former surgeon general (Bloomberg)
- Scientists identify gene linked to autism (BBC)
- Robotics help stroke patients regain function (NYT)
(NOTE: This item originally incorrectly stated that J. Craig Venter’s company, Synthetic Genomics, was involved in the research that transplanted one microbe’s genome into another. In fact, it was Venter’s own research institute, the J. Craig Venter Institute.)