GitHub’s annual Octoverse report is out today. It found that Microsoft’s Visual Studio Code or VSCode (19.1K), Azure Docs (14K), and Flutter (13K) were the top open source projects in total contributors on GitHub in the last year, followed by projects like Google’s TensorFlow (9.9K), Kubernetes (6.9K), and the React Native framework created by Facebook.

The annual report that looks at trends and milestones for the code repository acquired by Microsoft last year also found that repositories with topics like “deep learning,” “natural language processing,” and “machine learning” grew in popularity over the course of the past year. GitHub is now used by more than 40 million developers worldwide, a statistic it first shared this summer.

The majority of repository contributions have come from outside the United States since 2014, but the latest Octoverse report says more than 80% of repository contributions now come from outside the U.S.

A total of 44 million repositories were made in the last year. GitHub passed the 100 million repository milestone in November 2018.

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Above: Most popular programming languages

JavaScript remains the most popular language used by developers on GitHub, but for the first time in GitHub history Python beat out Java to be recognized as the second most-used programming language.

Dart, the programming language for Google’s user interface toolkit Flutter, is the fastest-growing language, followed by Rust, HCL, Kotlin, and TypeScript.

African nations lead the way in percentage growth in open source repositories, with growth highest in Nigeria, Kenya, Tunisia, and Morocco. Across Africa, contributions are up 40%, more than on any other continent. However, the largest overall repository contributions came from Asia, Europe, and North America.

Fastest by percentage growth in open source repositories

The report also found that 760,000 developers are learning to code on GitHub Student Developer Pack.

The 2019 Octoverse report is released ahead of GitHub Universe, the company’s annual community gathering, where new developer tools are expected to be announced. It also follows news of GitHub employee protest over Microsoft contracts with the Department of Homeland Security, whose Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency handles deportation and detention of people without permission to be in the United States.