Google has been hit by a €50 million ($57 million) fine by French data privacy body CNIL (National Data Protection Commission) for failure to comply with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulations.

The CNIL said that it was fining Google for “lack of transparency, inadequate information and lack of valid consent regarding the ads personalization,” according to a press release issued by the organization. The news was first reported by the AFP.


The GDPR came into effect last May with a view toward tightening the scope of data protection laws across the EU and ensuring that users of online services have the control mechanisms to manage their data.

The regulations have meant that all companies have had to rethink how they operate across the bloc, while some online properties such as newspapers elected to go offline in Europe rather than facing potentially hefty fines. Google, meanwhile, announced last month that it was shifting control of European data from the U.S. to Ireland to help it comply with GDPR rules — this switch is scheduled to take effect tomorrow, making today’s news all the more notable.


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The latest CNIL investigation into Google was brought about by two privacy pressure groups — La Quadrature du Net (LQDN) and None Of Your Business (NOYB). NOYB is actually the brainchild of renowned Austrian privacy activity Max Schrems, who previously pursued Facebook all the way to the highest European court over its mismanagement of user data. He’s also currently chasing Apple, Amazon, and other companies over GDPR non-compliance.

The crux of the complaints leveled at Google is that it acted illegally by forcing users to accept intrusive terms or lose access to the service. This “forced consent,” it’s argued, runs contrary to the principles set out by the GDPR that users should be allowed to choose whether to allow companies to use their data. In other words, technology companies shouldn’t be allowed to adopt a “take it or leave it” approach to getting users to agree to privacy-intruding terms and conditions.

The CNIL said that it carried out “online inspections” in September to see whether Google’s online services comply with regulations. It noted:

The aim was to verify the compliance of the processing operations implemented by Google with the French Data Protection Act and the GDPR by analysing the browsing pattern of a user and the documents he or she can have access, when creating a Google account during the configuration of a mobile equipment using Android.


The watchdog found two core privacy violations. First, it observed that the visibility of information relating to how Google processes data, for how long it stores it, and the kinds of information it uses to personalize advertisements, is not easy to access. It found that this information was “excessively disseminated across several documents, with buttons and links on which it is required to click to access complementary information.”

So in effect, the CNIL said there was too much friction for users to find the information they need, requiring up to six separate actions to get to the information. And even when they find the information, it was “not always clear nor comprehensive.” The CNIL stated:

Users are not able to fully understand the extent of the processing operations carried out by Google. But the processing operations are particularly massive and intrusive because of the number of services offered (about twenty), the amount and the nature of the data processed and combined. The restricted committee observes in particular that the purposes of processing are described in a too generic and vague manner, and so are the categories of data processed for these various purposes.

Secondly, the CNIL said that it found that Google does not “validly” gain user consent for processing their data to use in ads personalization. Part of the problem, it said, is that the consent it collects is not done so through specific or unambiguous means — the options involve users having to click additional buttons to configure their consent, while too many boxes are pre-selected and require the user to opt out rather than opt in. Moreover, Google, the CNIL said, doesn’t provide enough granular controls for each data-processing operation.

As provided by the GDPR, consent is ‘unambiguous’ only with a clear affirmative action from the user (by ticking a non-pre-ticked box for instance).

What the CNIL is effectively referencing here is dark pattern design, which attempts to encourage users into accepting terms by guiding their choices through the design and layout of the interface. This is something that Facebook has often done too, as it has sought to garner user consent for new features or T&Cs.

It’s worth noting here that Google has faced considerable pressure from the EU on a number of fronts over the way it carries out business. Back in July, it was hit with a record $5 billion fine in an Android antitrust case, though it is currently appealing that. A few months back, Google overhauled its Android business model in Europe, electing to charge Android device makers a licensing fee to preinstall its apps in Europe.

Google hasn’t confirmed what its next steps will be, but it will likely appeal the decision as it has done with other fines. “People expect high standards of transparency and control from us,” a Google spokesperson told VentureBeat. “We’re deeply committed to meeting those expectations and the consent requirements of the GDPR. We’re studying the decision to determine our next steps.”

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